Artificial insemination resulted in a great improvement of meat production.Even though molecular and cell cloning, in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer are increasingly gaining space in reproductive technology - AI being an efficient way - has a long prospect. The efficacy of AI is greatly dependent on the extender used in sperm conservation and insemination. The ideal extender has to meet several conditions raised.
It must have ideal ionic composition, providing optimal physico-chemical parameters, such as pH and osmolarity. The performance of extenders – even though with the same physico-chemical parameters - may differ greatly due to the differing ionic composition. The quality of ions in the medium has great impact on the longevity of sperm cells.
The small number of mitochondria in sperm cells apparently contradicts their huge energy demand required by motion. Therefore the supplementation of energy-providing molecules is of great importance. The energy supply must be ample enough to provide energy for days for the sperm cells.
During the intense energy metabolism end products – frequently toxic – may accumulate in the medium or in the sperm cell itself, which may cause the early slowing down of motion and reduction of fertilizing capability of spermatozoa. Arising toxic end products therefore have to be eliminated or their detrimental effect counteracted.
A good medium should support the biochemical processes preceding fertilization.
Any carbon-rich aqueous solution is a luring media for microorganisms and so is semen extender. So as to avoid bacterial growth in the medium a semen extender solution must contain antibiotics. Many antibiotics have an influence on sperm motion, which is frequently inhibitory. The antibiotics must be present to prevent bacterial growth yet should not have any impact on the sperm motion. Low concentration of antibiotics at the same time promotes bacterial resistance. Modern extenders have to comply directives of required antibiotic use.